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French primate disaster
Mad Cow Disease Seen in French Zoos: NY Times
Backgrounder on plagues of biblical proportion, Armegeddon
Acknowledged cases of BSE in zoo animals
Endangered primates species and their breeding programs
Zoos in England and France
Which zoos hold which primates and how many?
See also (off-page or off-site):
...The Primate Gallery: comprehensive imagery
...Major primate web sites, primate newsletters Yerkes Center
...Zoos listed by country
...Mad Deer Disease (CWD): spread from a contaminated facility

French primate disaster

30 Mar 99 PNAS journal article and webmaster opinion
The 30 Mar 99 issue of PNAS carries an explosive French study of very high experimental standards (plus a Nobel lauriate co-author) about BSE in primates in French zoos apparently acquired from BSE-tainted feed supplements through June, 1996. This is a huge scandal because it potentially affects the survival of many of the world's primate species.

It also suggests very strongly that the nvCJD epidemic will indeed be a 'plague of of biblical proportions'.

The primates showed contamination of the tonsils, esophagus, gastric glands, duodenum, walls of lymph and blood vessels, Peyer's patches, and spleen, in addition to dorsal and ventral root ganglian, spinal chord and brain. 14 of 26 non-experimental primates had neurological signs; 5/6 autopsies were positive, indicating very high dietary penetrance in a variety of primate genera and families.

Shockingly, the British manufacturer had continued to manufacure and distribute this speciality product, possibly to hundreds of zoos on the Continent and possibly worldwide, for 10 years after zoo ungulates and carnivores were diagnosed in England. British zoos apparently continue to export carrier animals worldwide. In the same years, Prince Phillip was head of the World Wildlife Fund urging primate conservation across the world.

Equally shocking, French zoos continued to use this feed despite knowning its contaminated source, even though nearly every one of the 234 species of primate is endangered in the wild, zoos are often used to sustain populations, and breeding facilities provide animals for human medical research. Only 8 French zoos and primate breeding facilities out of 89 agreed to cooperate with this study, which simply asked about primate neurological or unexplained deaths and dietary practices. A zoo in Lille acknowledged 3 primate deaths with TSE-like neurological illness.

It is highly questionable not to autopsy [or save samples] from valuable animals with unexplained neurological deaths fed known BSE feed, yet this is a big step up from non-cooperation. It seems that French veterinary ethics have a similar standard to those of French medicine (AIDS and hepatitis).

But is the problem limited to France and primates? Whose protein supplement did English zoos use for primates if not the local company's? Why would only French primates go down with TSE?

The products are identified as "Singe 107, MP, or Marex." Singe 107 (UAR, Paris, France) was previously described as containing "products declared fit for human consumption." Note 'singe' is French for monkey, so this presumbably is a name for a monkey chow. The present article does not identify the companies by name but says, "according to the manufacturers, this food contained various items, including gross protein, fats, corn, soya, carob bean, alfalfa, minerals, yeast, vitamis A, C, D3, and E, and cracklings (the so-called 'fifth quarter of beef' suitable for human consumption) from the same French distributor.

The British manufacturer 'which distributes nutritional supplements to zoos and animal breeding facilities through a French company [and possibly others in other countries]) announced in June, 1996 that it ceased to use beef in its nutritional supplements' which the authors take to mean that they had used beef prior to 'ceasing'. On 6 July 1996, an article appeared in Lancet documenting non-experimental transmission of BSE to primates (in a rhesus monkey that had died in 1992).

The 79 primates of 11 species were feed 20-40 gm/kg of these feeds in addition to their usual fruits and vegetables. For a 60 kg human, this works out to 1200-2400 gm.

In July 1996, Bons et al. published that a rhesus monkey and two lemurs at the Montpellier zoo had died of TSE. Here they look at an additional 20 lemurs and macaques from 3 French zoos. The zoos had to kill these lemurs anyway because they were primate hybrids, now illegal in France. Two lemurs were symptomatic, 18 were not: all were definitely positive for prion disease.

Lemurs and macaques can live for 20+ years, so what this implies is that a great many primates in French zoos are not yet symptomatic but are slowly incubating BSE-based prion disease.

We could ask whether French zoo and breeding facilities are thoroughly contaminated (like the ones in Colorado), whether only primates are affected, whether only French zoos are affected, whether food 'fit for human consumption' ended up in the human food chain, and indeed, wonder whether there is much of a species barrier at all to humans, given that 5 other species of primate have gone down with BSE via the oral route. We must ask for a long-overdue investigation on the primate situation in English zoos and breeding centres:

-- How many facilities have primates in England?
-- How many primates in English zoos have died of neurological disorder?
-- How many primates that were fed high risk chow and died with neurological symptoms were autopsied?
-- How many were fed this same chow?
-- How many primates from English zoos have been exported and to where?
-- Same questions for non-primates such as carnivores

Mad Cow Disease Seen in French Zoos: NY Times

30 Mar 99 NY Times By SANDRA BLAKESLEE
Large number of monkeys and lemurs in French zoos appear to be infected with the agent that causes "mad cow disease," according to a provocative study published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Although it is not the first time the disease has been found in monkeys and lemurs, the extent of the infection is surprising, researchers said. When 18 apparently healthy lemurs were killed and their tissues examined, every single animal was infected with what looked like mad cow disease.

The finding is bad news for people living in Britain who fear that a human form of mad cow disease, called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, or C.J.D., may have similar underpinnings.

For many years, zoo animals throughout Europe were fed protein supplements containing the rendered remains of British cattle, some of which carried a mysterious disease agent called an infectious prion.

A number of species that ate the tainted animal feed, including cats and hoofed animals, developed sponge-like holes in their brains and died in much the same way that British cattle were dying from mad cow disease. As a result, feed manufacturers stopped adding British beef to their products in 1996. [The first published fatality in a Briltish zoo animal was in 1986, ten years earlier. -- webmaster]

That year, Dr. NoÎlle Bons, a neurobiologist at Montpellier University in France reported that a rhesus monkey and two lemurs from the local zoo had died of a brain disease similar to mad cow disease. But a link to animal feed could not be proved.

In the study reported today, Dr. Bons and her colleagues fed a large portion of infected cattle brain to two young lemurs that had never before eaten meat. One animal received one dose, equivalent to a 154-pound person's eating a one- pound hamburger made entirely from cow brain. The second got two similar doses a couple months apart.

After five months, one animal showed "a loss in vitality" and was killed by its cage mates, Dr. Bons said. Researchers then killed the other lemur, and the tissues of both animals were examined for the presence of infectious prions.

Another 20 lemurs from three French zoos were also killed as part of a program to cull certain animals. Two showed subtle neurological symptoms but the other 18 looked completely normal. All had eaten animal feed containing British beef for many years. [Some of these animals originated in Madagascar and had never been in Britain -- they acquired the disease from a French monkey chow distributor of British beef BSE. -- webmaster] Finally, 3 young lemurs that had never eaten beef were also killed; they showed no signs of infectious prions, Dr. Bons said.

But the 2 animals intentionally infected and the 20 lemurs living in different zoos showed identical patterns of infection. In primates, the infection first takes hold in epithelial tissues of the gut, moves to tonsils, esophagus, lymph nodes and spleen and then spreads up the spinal cord to the brain, Dr. Bons said.

This is the first time that such a pattern has been shown in animals incubating a prion disease, said Dr. Paul Brown, a senior research scientist at the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke in Bethesda, Md., and co-author of the paper. Dr. Bons said she suspected the pattern was typical of most prion diseases, called spongiform encephalopathies, found in many mammalian species.

Prion diseases take many years to spread, incubate and produce symptoms, but once symptoms appear the disease usually progresses swiftly and is always fatal. Thus far, 39 people in Britain and one Frenchman have died from new variant C.J.D., which most experts think is contracted from eating infected beef, particularly brain tissue

New mad cow case brings French total to 57

Reuters North America Mon, Mar 29, 1999
PARIS - A new case of mad cow disease has been discovered in France, bringing to eight the number of cattle found this year to be suffering from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

The case is the 57th to be detected in France -- which has a total cattle herd of 21 million -- since health authorities began tracking the disease in 1990, the Agriculture Ministry announced Monday. The animal and the 156 others in its herd were destroyed over the weekend.

Farm Minister Jean Glavany has dismissed concerns about an outbreak in France, saying the number of fresh cases was small and should disappear after 2001. He told a news conference after the seventh case was reported this year that all the cases up to then could be traced back to events before late 1996, when tough controls were slapped on animal feed.

In the second half of 1996, France banned the use of animal nervous tissue, ground bone and certain organs in feed for pigs and poultry as well as cattle. There has been just one confirmed case in France of the deadly human form of mad cow disease, which is called new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and slowly eats away at the brain until its tissue looks like a sponge.

Study Shows How Mad Cow Disease Gets To Brain

Tue, Mar 30, 1999  Reuter sBy Maggie Fox, Health and Science Correspondent
WASHINGTON - Researchers said Monday they had documented how the agent that causes mad cow disease gets from food into the brain. It travels from the digestive tract into the lymphatic system and from there into the brain, they reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They also said they had shown, to no one's surprise, that primates -- the family that includes human beings -- can be infected with mad cow disease from food.

"It tells us that under natural conditions, natural including zoos, that primates can be infected. That doesn't come as a surprise," Paul Brown of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke in Bethesda, Ma

ryland, said in a telephone interview. Mad cow disease, known officially as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), swept through British cattle herds in the 1980s. It was traced to feed made of the remains of sheep that had been infected with scrapie, their version of the disease. It is caused by a mutated version of a protein known as a prion, which is very resistant to destruction by cooking or chemicals.

At first British officials said there was no risk to people from eating beef, but now 39 people are known to have died from a human version of mad cow disease caught from infected beef. It is a close relative of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a naturally occurring disease that kills about one in a million people. No one knows what causes CJD, but the new version, known as new variant CJD or nvCJD, is blamed on infected beef.

Brown and colleagues at Montpellier University in France, reported several cases of a related disease in lemurs. Zoo animals fed the same supplements as British cattle are known to have died of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which literally turn the brain into a sponge. Animals killed by the spongiform encephalopathies range from mink to antelope. Domestic cats have died of them, too.

The Montpellier team fed cattle brain to three lemurs -- two got two small meals containing the brains and one got a single meal with the brains. Lemurs fed the cattle brains had the abnormal prions in their tonsils, digestive tracts, spleen and lymph system, as well as in their spinal cords and brains, they reported. They said similar patterns were seen in 20 lemurs that had been fed beef protein made by a British company, two of which showed symptoms of the brain disease.

The pattern, they said, was clear -- the infection moves from the digestive tract to the lymphatic system, including the tonsils, then to the spinal cord and brain. "Our observations also show that even before (the abnormal prions) can be detected in the central nervous system in the pattern typical of terminal illness, it can be traced along nerve pathways ... through the spinal cord and into the brain cortex," they wrote. Such infections could be more widespread than anyone thought and they recommend close monitoring of zoo animals.

"This really documents, in great precision, a route by which the infectious agent enters the body from the mouth. This is all occurring early in the incubation period," Brown said. "To see the abnormal protein in the coverings of the mucus membranes of the gut and .. see how it transfers to the gut wall and gets into the spleen and goes from the spleen into the spinal cord and up the spinal cord into the brain is a very pretty picture of the route," he said.

Brown said the study explained why the infectious prions can be found in the tonsils of victims. "It is not because this is some heated-up variety (of CJD) but simply because it entered the body through the mouth. That's good news," he said. Because CJD has such a long incubation period in humans, Brown said it is still far to early to tell whether the nvCJD will cause a serious epidemic in Britain.

Tonsil tests will probably show who has CJD incubating in their bodies, Brown said, but he does not recommend doing them. "You tell me what good it would do," he said. All forms of CJD are incurable and always fatal.

Biblical plague backgrounder

30 Mar 99  King James Bible
Comment (webmaster): 'Plagues of biblical proportions' are used today for everything from computer viruses to melting icesheets. Collinge may have first introducedthis expression in the context of TSEs. In The London Times, 7 August 1997, he was quoted as saying [as noted by JR Blanchfield]:

"It is impossible to predict the size of the epidemic - it may only involve hundreds, but it could be Europe-wide and become a disaster of biblical proportions. We have to face the possibility of a disaster with tens of thousands of cases. We just don't know if this will happen, but what is certain is that we cannot afford to wait and see. We have to do something, right now... "

Let us begin by reviewing the biblical plagues themselves, then consider proportions. Many people would be thinking here of the ten plagues visited upon the Pharaoh of Egypt in the Book of Exodus rather than the seven in Revelation 15:1-16. Those plagues were blood, frogs, lice, flies, murrain, boils, hail, locust, darkness, and slaying of first born. Plagues #5 and #10 are the ones of special concern to us today.

Murrain , an old English word meaing 'a pestilence or plague affecting livestock such as anthrax or Texas fever of cattle', see Exodus 9: 1-7, is the most relevent though livestock were also explicitly affected by the boils, hail, lice, and indirectly through forage and drinking water availability by the locusts, frogs, and the Nile turned to blood.

The proportions of each plague are such that they affected the entire country of Egypt. Livestock were severely affected ['all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. ' Exodus 9:6] The worst for people came later with the firstborn ['there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. ' Exodus 12:30. 'And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, ... and all the firstborn of beasts. Exodus 11:5]

So you can see from this that 'plagues of biblical proportions' have an element of modern parable in describing the BSE epidemic [murrain], the response of the English bureaucracy [Pharaohs], the young age of nvCJD victims [first-borns], and the passing over of strict vegetarians [Israelites]. There is irony too in the primate story breaking just at the Passover season.

Exodus 9: 1-7

1  Then the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him,
                    Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they
                    may serve me.
              2  For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still, 
              3  Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field,
                    upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and
                    upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain. 
              4  And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of
                    Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of
                    Israel. 
              5  And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall
                    do this thing in the land. 
              6  And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt
                    died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. 
              7  And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the
                    Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not
                    let the people go. 
The Armageddon scenario is sometimes used instead of plagues. That would be Revelation 16:16: 'And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.' This is really speaks to a battle to end all battles. There is no battle scenario developing in England -- very little money is being spent on nvCJD and most of that on old-fashioned topics. Not commensurately to catastrophic plausible risk. Too little, too late: one could look more to the Titanic or an ostrich with its head in the sand than to Armageddon for a comparison.

Revelation 16:

14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth
                    unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to
                    the battle of that great day of God Almighty. 
              15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his
                    garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. 
              16 And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue
                    Armageddon. 
              17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came
                    a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It
                    is done. 
              18 And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a
                    great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so
                    mighty an earthquake, and so great. 
              19 And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the
                    nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to
                    give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. 
              20 And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. 
              21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about
                    the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague
                    of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great. 

Acknowledged cases of BSE in zoo animals

MAFF web site
Confirmed diagnoses of BSE transmitted to zoo animals 03 Mar 99
kudu 6all at London Zoo (3 never received animal protein, 2 were asymptomatic culls, 1 from Marwell)
gemsbok 1Marwell Animal Park
nyala 1Marwell Animal Park
oryx (1 Arabian, 1 scimitar) 21 at London Zoo (Vet Rec 127: 418 1990)
eland 61 at Port Lympne Zoo in Kent, 5 others by Apr 1990 [site undisclosed]
cheetah 5*Marwell Animal Park, 1 exported to Fota Wildlife Park Ireland, 1 to Perth Zoo, Australia, 1 to Safari de Peaugres.;
Whipsnade Zoo, 1 exported to Safari de Peaugres, France (born in 1989).
puma 31 at Chester zoo in 1991, 2 others undisclosed, found after Sep 94
tiger 2zoo not disclosed, cited in Apr 96
ocelot 2zoo not disclosed, not in Medline. post-Nov 1992
EU bison 1zoo not disclosed, not in Medline
ankole cow 2zoo not disclosed, not in Medline
lion 1Edinburgh zoo (unconfirmed), not in Medline
rhesus macque*** 3Ravensden Zoo, 3 exported to Montpellier zoo
mouflin*** 10Flock B animal imported from Belgium, facilities not identified, called scrapie
house cat 85**
* Excludes one cheetah in Australia and one in Ireland (litter mates born in GB, zoo not disclosed), and two in France also born in GB [originated from Marwell]
** Omits 1 in Norway, 1 in Lichtenstein, 1 in N Ireland. Excludes cat and owner case in Italy.
*** Omitted from Maff site.

The 23 August 1998 Iceland sympostium, Abstract P56, by JY Madec, A Pencsik, P Belli, C Vitaud, and Th. Baron: of the Centre Nation d'Etudes Veterinaaires et Alimentaire, Lyons, France.Note: C. Vitaud is at the Safari de Peaugres at Peaugres, France, suggesting that this facility received the sick cheetahs:

"A female cheetah (Actinonyx jubatus) born at Marwell Animal Park in Great Britain in April 1991 and exported to France at 2 years of age was diagnosed in our laboratory with a spongiform encephalopathy in July 1997. This is the second case of TSE in a cheetah imported from GB to France, that occured in the same zoologicial park as the first one [Baron et al, Vet Rec 141:270-271 1997]."
The MAFF site states:

* Not included above are two cheetahs at zoos in Australia and the Republic of Ireland. Both were apparently litter mates and exported from Marwell zoo, where the cheetahs on lines 15 and 29 were born. Two cases in cheetahs were also confirmed in France, one in January 1997, in an animal born at Whipsnade zoo in 1989. Details are awaited for the second case, but it is reported to have been born in Britain.
There seems to be only two zoos in the Republic of Ireland. One of them got a bad cheetah from Marwell. This would have been Fota. Note cheetahs are not fed pelleted rendered chows but "parts of cattle carcasses judged unfit for human consumption" [Vet Rec 1994 Sep 24;135(13):296-303]. Fota Wildlife Park, County Cork is "the world's leading breeder of this endangered species. Some10,000 cheetahs remain in their natural habitat. Also being bred at Fota is the scimitar horned oryx brought to the brink of extinction but being re-introduced in its native North Africa" (let's hope not ones from London Zoo RP). Dublin zoo seems to have snow leopards, not cheetahs.

Chronology 1

According to MAFF
November 1986 
...Disease identified by Central Veterinary Laboratory 

31 January 1990
 Announcement that 5 antelopes have succumbed to a spongiform
 encephalopathy (greater kudu, Arabian oryx, eland, nyala and
 gemsbok. The last two were referred to in Southwood report,
 Southwood Report received by Ministers 9 February 1989, published 7 February 1989)

Chronology 2

According to Medline
The first published article implies MAFF chronology is off by 4 years in terms of what was known.  The first cases in cattle were found in December 1984 and confirmed by September, 1986, contrary to the MAFF account.  The second implies zoos initally lied to investigating scientists.

Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles.

Vet Rec 1994 Sep 24;135(13):296-303
Kirkwood JK, Cunningham AA
Since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the British Isles. The affected animals have comprised members of the family Bovidae: one nyala (Tragelaphus angasi), four eland (Taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and members of the family Felidae: four cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and one puma (Felis concolor). In addition, three cases of a spongiform encephalopathy of unknown aetiology have been reported in ostriches (Struthio camellus) from two zoos in north west Germany. [later disclaimed].

Scrapie-like encephalopathy in a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) which had not been fed ruminant-derived protein.

Vet Rec 1992 Apr 25;130(17):365-7 
Kirkwood JK, Wells GA, Cunningham AA, Jackson SI, Scott AC, Dawson M, Wilesmith JW
A 19-month-old greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), whose dam had died 15 months earlier with spongiform encephalopathy, required euthanasia after developing severe ataxia and depression with an apparently sudden onset. .... The animal was born nine months after the statutory ban on the inclusion of ruminant-derived protein in ruminant feeds and, as no other possible sources of the disease were apparent, it appears likely that the infection was acquired from the dam. [This was later withdrawn: animal had been feed BSE-protein after all]

A spongiform encephalopathy in a cat.

Vet Rec 1990 Dec 15;127(24):586-8 
Leggett MM, Dukes J, Pirie HM
[This seems to be the first published confirmation of BSE in house cats. In October 1998 the simultaneous occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy in a man and his pet cat was reported from Italy in Lancet. This incident remains unexplained.]

Endangered primates species and their breeding programs

The Primate Gallery features one of the BSE-lemurs as 'primate of the week':

Conservation Status of BSE-affected lemurs:
black-and-white ruffed lemur,Varecia variegata variegata

The black-and-white ruffed lemur is severely threatened by continued destruction of Madagascar's lowland eastern rain forests and also because it is heavily hunted and trapped for food throughout its range..

The ruffed lemur is found in a number of protected areas: the Mantady, Tanomafana and Verzanatsoro National Parks, the Angringitra, Betampona and Zahamena Nature Reserves, and the Ambatovaky, Analamazaotra and Nosy Mangave Special Reserves (Pollock, 1984; Nicoll and Langrand, 1989; Harcourt and Thornback, 1990; Morland , 1990, 1991; Mittermeier et al., 1992). However, levels of protection within these arease vary considerably. There are no population figures available, but a reasonable order of magniturde estimate would be 1,000-10,000 (Mittermeier et al., 1992).

The black-and-white ruffed lemur breeds very well in captivity. There are more than 400 animals in over 100 institutions worldwide (Olney and Ellis, 1992; ISIS, 1993). the Duke University Primate Center maintains the largest colony. Two pairs of captive born ruffed lemurs were recently returned to Madagascar from this institution and the San Antonio and San Diego Zoo (Katz, 1991).

Based on its low estimated population numbers and the fact that it is a popular target for hunters, Varecia variegata variegata was given a High Priority rating (5) in the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group's Lemurs of Madagascar: An Action Plan for their Conservation (Mittermeierer et al., 1992). Using the latest IUCN Red List criteria, we place this subspecies in the Endangered category. If further research indicates that one or more of the named "subspecies" of the black-and-whie ruffed lemur (e.g., variegata, subcincta, editorum,) are valid, some of these would possibly enter the Critically Endangered category. Lesser Mouse Lemur Microcebus murinus image

Brown Lemur Eulemur fulvus image

Black Lemur Eulemur macaco image

Mongoose Lemur Eulemur mongoz image

Ring-tailed Lemur Lemur catta image

Lemurs of Madagascar Mittermeier, R.A.; Tattersall, I; Konstant, W.R; Meyers, D.M.; Mast, R.B. 1994. Conservation International, Washington, D.C. Lemurs of Madagascar is the first book in the Tropical Field Guide Series produced by Conservation International. The authors discuss the origins, discovery, study and conservation of Madagascar's lemur fauna, and provide in-depth profiles of each of the country's 50 species and subspecies. The guide is illustrated by Stephen Nash with 35 color plates, maps of the distribution of all species, and a series of 135 postural, locomotor and behavioral drawings to assist in field identification.

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre has a searchable database of threatened animals worldwide. Critically endangered primates:

Species: Allocebus trichotis
Common: Allocebe (F), Chirogale aux oreilles poilues (F), Hairy-eared Dwarf Lemur (E), Lemur orejipeludo (S)
Red List: CR A1c, B1+2abc (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Family: LEMURIDAE

Species: Eulemur macaco flavifrons
Common: Sclater's Lemur (E)
Red List: CR A1cd, B1+2bc (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Hapalemur aureus
Common: Golden Bamboo Lemur (E), Golden Lemur (E), Hapal»mur dor» (F), Lemur cariancho (S)
Red List: CR A2cd (Baillie, J.)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis
Common: Alaotran Gentle Lemur (E)
Red List: CR A2cd, B1+2c (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Hapalemur simus
Common: Broad-nosed Gentle Lemur (E), Grand hapal»mur (F), Greater Bamboo Lemur (E), Hapal»mur simien (F), Lemur cariancho (S)
Red List: CR A2cd (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Varecia variegata rubra
Red List: CR A2cd, B1+2bc (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Family: INDRIDAE

Species: Propithecus diadema candidus
Red List: CR A2cd, B1+2bc (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Propithecus diadema perrieri
Red List: CR A2cd, B1+2c (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Propithecus tattersalli
Common: Golden-crowned Sifaka (E), Indris sifaca (S), Tattersall's Sifaka (E)
Red List: CR A2c, B1+2bcd (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Species: Propithecus verreauxi coronatus
Red List: CR B1+2bc, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Madagascar


Family: CALLITRICHIDAE

Species: Leontopithecus caissara
Common: Black-faced Lion Tamarin (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a, D1 (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Species: Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Common: Black Lion Tamarin (E), Golden-rumped Lion Tamarin (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Species: Leontopithecus rosalia
Common: Golden Lion Tamarin (E), Singe-lion (F), Tamarin soyeux (F)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Family: CEBIDAE

Species: Alouatta belzebul ululata
Common: Red-handed Howling Monkey (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Species: Alouatta coibensis trabeata
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Panama


Species: Alouatta fusca fusca
Common: Northern Brown Howling Monkey (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a, D1 (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Species: Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Ecuador


Species: Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Panama


Species: Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Common: Northern Bahian Blond Titi (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Species: Cebus albifrons trinitatis
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Trinidad and Tobago


Species: Cebus apella margaritae
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Venezuela


Species: Cebus xanthosternos
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil


Species: Lagothrix flavicauda
Common: Singe laineux › queue jaune (F), Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Brazil, Ecuador (?), Peru


Species: Lagothrix lagotricha lugens
Common: Colombian Woolly Monkey (E)
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela


Species: Saimiri oerstedi citrinellus
Red List: CR B1+2abcde, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Costa Rica


Family: CERCOPITHECIDAE

Species: Macaca pagensis
Common: Mentawai Macaque (E)
Red List: CR A1cd+2c (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Indonesia


Species: Procolobus badius waldroni
Common: Miss Waldron's Bay Colobus (E)
Red List: CR A1c (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana


Species: Rhinopithecus avunculus
Common: Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey (E)
Red List: CR C1, E (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Viet Nam


Species: Trachypithecus delacouri
Common: White-rumped Black Lemur (E)
Red List: CR A1d, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Viet Nam


Family: HYLOBATIDAE

Species: Hylobates moloch
Common: Gibbon cendr» (F), Gib¤n ceniciento (S), Javan Gibbon (E), Silvery Gibbon (E)
Red List: CR A1c, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Indonesia


Family: HOMINIDAE

Species: Gorilla gorilla S
Common: Gorilla (E)
Red List: CR A1c, C2a (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Cameroon, Nigeria


Species: Gorilla gorilla beringei
Common: Mountain Gorilla (E)
Red List: CR C2b (Primate Specialist Group)
Distribution: Rwanda, Uganda, Zaire

Zoos in England and France

30 Mar 99 webmaster: Zoonet and ISIS
These zoos are only a partial list of 61 facilities (the article mentions contacting 90 facilities in France). Not all will house primates, though other mammals are of equal concern. Only a few are known to be affected by BSE. When animal holdings are give, the first number is the species count, the second individual animals.
France

'Zoo' Parc d'Acclimatation
Saint-Jean Cap-Ferrat Telephone : *1-31-56 Fax:

African Safari
41 rue des Landes
31830 Plaisance du Touch
Toulouse  Telephone : 33-61-86-45-03 Fax: 33-61-06-70-18
Mammals: 10 31

Atlantide Parc
Avenue de la Resistance
30270 Saint Jean du Gard Telephone : 33-66-85-32-32  

Besancon zoo
Museum de Besancon
La Citadelle
25000 Besancon
Doubs, France
Tel: 33 381650743 
6 lemurs confirmed with TSE

Centre de Primatologie (CDP)
Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg
Rue du Fort Foch
Niederhausbergen F-67207 Telephone : 33-88-561268 Fax: 33-88-560230

Espace Zoologique de St. Martin la Plaine
42800 Rive de Gier
Telephone : 33-77-75-18-68 Fax: 33-77-83-60-99
Mammals: 16 83

Espace Zoologique de la Boissiere du Dor
F-44430 La Boissiere du Dore Telephone : 33-40-33-70-32 Fax: 33-40-33-75-15
Mammals: 35 250
holds lemurs

Exotarium de Calcatoggio
Chemin de Petra Nera
20111 Calcatoggio Telephone : 33-95-52-22-63 Fax:

Foundation Cordama Pour la Protection
Villa Cypres
F-06190 Roquebrune, Cap Martin

Jardin D'Oiseaux Tropicaux
Quartier St. Honore
83250 La Londe
Mammals: 90 420

Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyon
Parc de la Tete d'Or
69006 Lyon, Rhone Telephone : 33-78-89-16-02 Fax:
Mammals: 69 520

Jardin aux Oiseaux
Upie-26120 Chabeuil Telephone : 33-75-84-45-90 Fax: 33-75-843926
Mammals: 220 1000

La Foret des Singes  [singe = monkeys]
46500 Rocamadour Telephone : 33-65-33-62-72 Fax: 33-65-38-86-82

La Vallee des Singes [singe = monkeys]
Le Gureau
86700 Romagne
Tel: 33 549 87 2020 
holds lemurs

La Montagne des Singes [singe = monkeys]
Kintzheim
67600 Selestat Telephone : 33-88-92-11-09 Fax: 33-88-82-30-02
Mammals: 0 0
Reptiles: 0 0

Lisieux CERZA
Desbiez
14100 Lisieux
Tel: 33 231 621576 
holds at least two species of lemurs

Les Aigles de Provins
ThÈ’tre des Remparts 

MARINE-PARC Rivesaltes
Mas de la Garrigue
66600 Rivesaltes Telephone : 33-68-64-65-65

Marineland Antibes
306 Ave Mozart
06600 Antibes Telephone : 33-93-33-49-49 Fax: 33-93-33-38-65
Mammals: 5 48

Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
3 Quai St-Bernard
75231 Paris, Cedex 05 Telephone : 33-1-4079-3794 Fax: 33-1-4079-3793
Mammals: 129 642

Oceanarium du Croisic
Avenue de St Goustan
6 quai du Port Ciguet- B.P. 44
F-44490 Le Croisic Telephone : 33-40-230244 Fax: 33-40-232293  
Mammals: 1 12

Parc Animalier de Cezalier
F-63420 Ardes-sur-Couze

Parc Animalier de Courzieu
69690 Courzieu Telephone : 33-74-70-96-10 Fax: 33-74-70-86-63
Mammals: 33 200

Parc Zoologique Champrepus
Hotel Mahe
F-50800 Champrepus Telephone : 33-33-61-30-74 Fax: 33-33-61-71-43
Mammals: 44 162

Parc Zoologique de Bois de Coulange
Centre Thermal et Touristique
57360 Amneville Telephone : 33-87-70-25-60 Fax: 33-87-70-25-60
Mammals: 41 235

Parc Zoologique de Cleres - Fondation Jean
Delacour
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
76690 Cleres Telephone : 33-35-33-23-08 Fax: 33-35-33-56-04
Mammals: 180 1140

Parc Zoologique de Doue-la Fontaine
49 700 Doue-la Fontaine Telephone : 33-41-59-1858 Fax: 33-41-59-2586
Mammals: 40 283

Parc Zoologique de Frejus
83600 Frejus Telephone : 33-94-40-70-65 Fax: 33-94-408992
Mammals: 55 230
PNAS paper reports 5 dead squirrel monkeys, one of which died with neurological signs in 1990. 


Parc Zoologique de La Fleche "Le Tertre
Rouge"
72200 La Fleche, Sarthe Telephone : 33-43-94-04-55 Fax: 33-43-45-24-43
Mammals: 30 500

Parc Zoologique de Lille
Avenue Mathias Delobel
Lille 59800 Telephone : 33-20-57-3808 Fax: 33-20-57-3808
3 primates dead with neurological symptoms similar to TSE in Jan 96


Parc Zoologique de Lunaret
50 Avenue d'Agropolis
34090 Montpellier Telephone : 33-67-63-27-63 Fax: 33-67-41-45-57
Mammals: 80 508

A zoo identified as the "Montpellier Zoological Park" contained infected 
lemurs and rhesus monkeys.

Parc Zoologique de Maubeuge
Avenue du Parc
Hotel de Ville
59600 Maubeuge Telephone : 33-27-65-15-73 Fax: 33-27-53-75-00


Parc Zoologique et Botanique
51 rue du jardin zoologique - 68200 Mulhouse
Mulhouse, France
 TÈl : 03 89 31 85 10 - Fax 03 89 31 85 26
3 lemurs originating here now dead with neurological symptoms at Montpellier
Maintains international studbook on Hylobates concolor, the crested gibbon.

Parc Zoologique de Paris
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
53 avenue de Saint-Maurice
F-75012 Paris Telephone : 33-1-44752000 Fax: 33-1-43435473
Mammals: 82 493

Parc Zoologique de Pont-scorff
Kersamedy
F-56620 Pont-Scorff Telephone : 33-97-32-60-86 Fax: 33-97-32-57-06
Mammals: 18 74

Parc Zoologique de Saint Augustine
F-03320 Chateau/Allier

Parc Zoologique de Saint Pourcain
"Le Pal"
F-03290 St-Pourcain/Besbre Telephone : 33-70-42-03-60 Fax: 33-70-42-01-52
Mammals: 30 -1

Parc Zoologique de Thoiry
78770 Thoiry Telephone : 33-1-34-87-52-25 Fax: 33-1-34-87-54-12
Mammals: 26 132

Parc Zoologique de la Ville D'Amiens
139 rue du Faubourg de Hem
80000 Amiens Telephone : 33-22-43-06-95 Fax: 33-22-443192
Mammals: 56 285

Parc Zoologique du Bois d'Attilly
77330 Ozoir-la-Ferriere Telephone : 33-60-02-70-80 Fax:
Mammals: 150 450

Parc Zoologique du Chateau de Branfere
56190 Muzillac Telephone : 33-97-429466 Fax: 33-97-428122
Mammals: 93 -1

Parc Zoologique du Moulin de Richard Sarl
22590 Tregomeur
St. Brieuc Telephone : 33-96-79-01-07 Fax: 33-967-932-42
Mammals: 20 176

Parc Zoologique et Botanique
51 rue du Jardin Zoologique
F-68100 Mulhouse Telephone : 33-89-44-1744 Fax: 33-89-44-0806
Mammals: 60 339

Parc de Vision de Gramat
Route de Cajarc
F-46500 Gramat Telephone : 33-65-388122 Fax:
Mammals: 99 577

Parc de la Haute Touche
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
La Haute Touche
36290 Obterre Telephone : 33-54-39-20-82 Fax: 33-54-39-24-33
Mammals: 17 -1

Parc des Cigognes
F-68150 Hunawihr Telephone : 33-89737262 Fax: 33-89738125
Mammals: -1 200

Parc des Oiseaux
01330 Villars les Dombes Telephone : 33-74-98-05-54 Fax: 33-74-98-27-74
Mammals: 400 2000

Reserve Africaine de Sigean
Route Nationale 9
11130 Sigean Telephone : 33-68-48-20-20 Fax: 33-68-48-80-85
Mammals: 80 1203

Rocher des Aigles
F-46500 Rocamadour Telephone : 33-65-33-65-45 Fax: 33-65-33-69-06
Mammals: 40 300

Safari Africain la Chevallerie
F-44710 Port-St-Pere Telephone : 33-40048282 Fax: 33-40048983
Mammals: 6 117

Safari de Peaugres
07340 Peaugres, Serrieres Telephone : 33-75-33-00-32 Fax: 33-756-778-75
Mammals: 25 86
holds lemurs.  Also received 2 infected cheetahs from Marwell Animal Park.

Sarl Zoo de Pietats
Pietat 64800 Nay Telephone : 33-59-71-21-90 Fax: 33-59-71-01-55
Mammals: 2 56

Site Zoologique CERZA (Centre d'Etudes et
de Recherches Zoologique Augeron)
14100 Hermival les Vaux Telephone : 33-31-62-17-22 Fax: 33-31-62-33-40
Mammals: 3 60

Strasbourg Zoo de l'Orangerie
Orangerie
67 Strasbourg Telephone : 33-88-61-62-88 Fax:
Mammals: 42 181

Touroparc - Parc zoologique
La Maison Blanche
Cidex 944
71570 Romaneche-Thorins Telephone : 33-85-35-51-53 Fax: 33-8535-5234
Mammals: 60 250

Verlhiac Primate Center
Saint Chamassy
F-24260 La Bugue

Volerie-des-Aigles
Chateau de Kintzheim
67600 Selestat

Zoo Aquarium de la Barre des Monts
ZA le Rampy
85550 La Barre des Monts Telephone : 33-51-68-51-62 Fax:

Zoo Marin de St Jean de Monts
Rue des Voleurs
85160 Saint Jean de Monts Telephone : 33-51-59-01-25 Fax:

Zoo de Haye
C/o G.E.C.N.A.L.
Maison de la Nature et Ass.
F-54840 Velaine-en-Haye

Zoo de Jurques
F-14260 Aunay-S/Odon Telephone : 33-31-77-80-58 Fax: 33-31-77-77-64
Mammals: 50 180

Zoo de La Palmyre
B.P.08
17570 Royan, Les Mathes Telephone : 33-46-22-46-06 Fax: 33-46-236297
Mammals: 61 506

Zoo de Langoiran
F-33550 Langoiran

Zooparc de Beauval
41110 St. Aignan sur Cher Telephone : 33-5475-0556 Fax: 33-5432-6594
holds lemurs

Zoorama Europeen de la Foret de Chize
79360 Villiers en Bois Telephone : 33-49-76-79-56 Fax: 33-49-76-79-37
Mammals: 28 96
England It is hard to imagine how the primate problem could be any better in England than in France:
Anglesey Sea Zoo
Brynsiencyn
Anglesey
Gwynedd LL61 6TQ Telephone: 44-1-248-430-411 Fax: 44-1-248-430-213

Animal Gardens
North End
Mablethorpe
Lincolnshire LN12 1QG Telephone: 44-1-507-473346 Fax: 
  Mammals:...54...195

Aviary, Waddesdon Manor
Waddesdon Manor
Aylesbury, Bucks HP18 0JH Telephone: 44-1-296-651-211 Fax: 44-1-296-651-293
  Mammals:...56...389

Banham Zoo Ltd.
The Grove
  Mammals:...75...307

Basildon Zoo
Vange
Basildon SS16 4QA
Essex Telephone: 44-1-268-553-985 Fax: 
  Mammals:...51...270

Battersea Park Children's Zoo
Battersea Park
London SW11 4NJ Telephone: 44-1-81-871-7540 Fax: 44-1-81-871-7533

Beale Wildlife Gardens
Church Farm
Lower Basildon
Reading, Berks. RG8 9NH Telephone: 44-1-734-845172 Fax: 44-1-734-845171
  Mammals:...130...500

Birdland Zoo Gardens
Riverside
Bourton-on-the-Water
Glos. GL54 2BT Telephone: 44-1-451-20-480 Fax: 
  Mammals:...324...1247

Birdworld
Holt Pound, nr Farnham
Surrey GU10 4LD Telephone: 44-1-420-22140 Fax: 44-1-420-23715
  Mammals:...218...983

Birmingham Nature Centre
Pershore Road
Birmingham B5 7RL Telephone: 44-1-21-472-7775 Fax: 
  Mammals:...16...43

Blackpool Zoo Park
East Park Drive
Blackpool, Lancs. FY3 8PP Telephone: 44-1-253-765027 Fax: 44-1-253-798884
  Mammals:...53...247

Blair Drummond Safari and Leisure Park
Blair Drummond
Nr Stirling FK9 4UR, Scotland Telephone: 44-1-786-841-456 Fax: 44-1-786-841-491
Mammals:...12...83

Brent Lodge Park Animal Centre
C/O London Borough of Ealing
14/16 Uxbridge Road
London W5 2BP Telephone: 44-181-579-2424 Fax: 44-181-579-5453

Bristol Zoo Gardens (Bristol, Clifton, &
West of England Zoological Society)
Bristol BS8 3HA Telephone: 44-1-179-706-176 Fax: 44-1-179-736-814
  Mammals:...91...322

Camperdown Country Park
Coupar Angus Road
Dundee DO2 4TF, Scotland Telephone: 44-1-382-432-689 Fax: 44-1-382-432-660:...# Species...#   Mammals:...59...226

Carrick Green Wildlife Park
3 Taylors Road
Stotfold
Hitchin, Hertfordshire SG5 4AZ Telephone: 44-1-462-834-788 Fax: 

Cat Survival Trust
The Centre
Codicote Road
Welwyn, Herts. AL6 9TU Telephone: 44-1-43871-6478 Fax: 44-1-43871-7535
  Mammals:...18...99

Chessington Zoo
Leatherhead Road
Chessington
Surrey KT9 2NE Telephone: 44-1-372-729560 Fax: 44-1-372-725050
  Mammals:...45...98
 

Chester Zoo (The North of England Zoological Society)
Upton-by-Chester
Cheshire CH2 1LH Telephone: 44-1-244-380-280 Fax: 44-1-244-371-273
  Mammals:...202...1052

Chestnut Centre Conservation Park
Castleton Road
Chapel-en-le-Frith
Derbyshire SK12 6PE Telephone: 44-1-298-814-099 Fax: 44-1-298-816-213

City of Belfast Zoo
Hazlewood, Antrim Road
Belfast BT36 7PN
Northern Ireland Telephone: 44-1-232-776-277 Fax: 44-1-232-370578
  Mammals:...68...383

Colchester Zoo
Stanway Hall
Maldon Road
Colchester, Essex CO3 5SL Telephone: 44-1-206-331-292 Fax: 44-1-206-331-392
  Mammals:...49...170

Combe Martin Wildlife Park
Higher Leigh Manor
Combe Martin, North Devon Telephone: Fax: 

Cornwall Animal World
Trenance Park
Newquay, Cornwall TR7 2LZ Telephone: 44-1637-873342 Fax: 44-1637-851315

Cotswold Wildlife Park
Burford, Oxon. OX18 4JW Telephone: 44-1-99-382-3006 Fax: 44-1-99-382-3807
  Mammals:...117...451

Cricket St. Thomas Wildlife & Leisure Park
Cricket St Thomas
Chard, Somerset TA20 4DD Telephone: 44-1-460-30755 Fax: 44-1-460-30668
  Mammals:...58...378

Curraghs Wildlife Park
Ballaugh
Ramsey
Isle of Man IN7 5EA Telephone: 44-1-624-897-323 Fax: 
  Mammals:...97...300

Dartmoor Wildlife Park
Sparkwell, nr Plymouth
Devon PL7 5DG Telephone: 44-1-752-837-645 Fax: 44-1-752-837-209
  Mammals:...59...478

Drayton Manor Park & Zoo
Nr Tamworth, Staffs. B78 3TW Telephone: 44-1-827-287979 Fax: 44-1-827-288916
  Mammals:...18...38

Drusillas Zoo Park
Alfriston
Sussex BN26 5QS Telephone: 44-1-323-870656 Fax: 44-1-323-870846
  Mammals:...49...169

Dudley Zoo
Dudley and West Midlands Zoological Society
2, The Broadway
Dudley, W Midlands DY1 4QB Telephone: 44-1-384-252401 Fax: 44-1-384-456048
  Mammals:...72...391

Edinburgh Zoo
Corstorphine, Scotland, UK  

Exmoor Animal & Bird Gardens
South Stowford
Bratton Fleming
Barnstaple, Devon EX31 4SG Telephone: 44-1-598-763352 Fax: 44-1-598-763352
  Mammals:...52...245

Flamingo Gardens and Zoological Park
Weston Underwood
Olney, Bucks. Telephone: 44-1-234-711451 Fax: 
  Mammals:...175...800

Flamingo Land
Kirby Misperton
Malton, Yorks. YO17 0UX Telephone: 44-1-65-386-287 Fax: 44-1-65-386-280
  Mammals:...63...348

Gatwick Zoo
Russ Hill
Charlwood, Surrey RH6 0EG Telephone: 44-1-293-862312 Fax: 44-1-293-862550

Glasgow Zoo
Calderpark
Uddington
Glasgow G71 7RZ Scotland Telephone: 44-1-41-771-1185 Fax: 44-1-41-771-2615
  Mammals:...10...41

Haigh Mini Zoo
Haigh Country Park
Wigan WN2 1PE Telephone: 44-1-942-832-895 Fax: 

Hamerton Wildlife Centre
Hamerton
Huntingdon, Cambs. PE17 5RE Telephone: 44-1-832-293-362 Fax: 44-1-832-293-677
  Mammals:...104...300

Harewood Bird Garden
Harewood Estate
Leeds
W Yorkshire LS17 9LQ Telephone: 44-1-532-886-238 Fax: 44-1-532-886-238
  Mammals:...109...520

Hawk Conservancy
Weyhill, nr Andover
Hants. SP11 8DY Telephone: 44-1-264-773850 Fax: 44-1-264-773772
Mammals:...70...250

Highland Wildlife Park (Royal Zoological Society of Scotland)
Kincraig, Kingussie
Inverness-shire PH21 1NL Telephone: 44-1-540-651270 Fax: 44-1-540-651236
  Mammals:...24...93

Howletts Wild Animal Park
Bekesbourne, nr Canterbury
Kent Telephone: 44-1-227-72-1286 Fax: 44-1-303-72-1853
  Mammals:...3...5

Int. Fdt. Cons. & Dev. of Wildf.
C/o HJS Consultant Services
71 Grosvenor Rd., Langley Vale
Epsom Downs, Surrey KT18 6JF Telephone: 44-1-372-271515 Fax: 44-1-372-271818:...# Species...#   Mammals:...1...107

Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust
Les Augres Manor
Trinity
Jersey JE3 5BF Channel Islands Telephone: 44-1-534-864666 Fax: 44-1-534-865161
  Mammals:...33...578

Jersey Zoo
 Jersey Island, UK

Knowsley Safari Park 
Prescot, Merseyside L34 4AN Telephone: 44-1-51-430-9009 Fax: 44-1-51-426-3677
Mammals:...0...0

Lakeland Wildlife Oasis
Hale
Milnthorpe, Cumbria LA7 7EW Telephone: 44-1539-563-027 Fax: 

Linton Zoological Gardens
Hadstock Road
Linton, Cambs. CB1 6NT Telephone: 44-1-223-891-308 Fax: 44-1-223-891-077
  Mammals:...41...96

Liverpool Museum Aquarium & Vivarium
National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside
William Brown St.
Liverpool L3 8EN Telephone: 44-151-207-0001 Fax: 44-151-478-4390
  Mammals:...0...0

London Zoo
Zoological Society of London
Regent's Park
London NW1 4RY Telephone: 44-1-71-722-3333 Fax: 44-1-71-586-5743
  Mammals:...262...884

Manor House Wildlife & Leisure Park
St. Florence
Tenby, Dyfed
Wales SA70 8RJ Telephone: 44-1-646-651-201 Fax: 44-1-646-651-201

Marwell Zoological Park
Colden Common
Winchester, Hampshire, SO21 1JH Telephone: 44-1-962-777407 Fax: 44-1-962-777511
email: http://www.marwell.org.uk/contacts.htm
  Mammals:...45...169 including 15 species of primates
28 June 1986 TSE confirmed in nyala  
22 June 1987 case of SE in a gemsbok
2 BSE cheetahs born on site confirmed, 3 exported to foreign countries.

Mole Hall Wildlife Park
Widdington, nr Saffron Walden
Newport, Essex CB11 3SS Telephone: 44-1-799-540-400 Fax: 
  Mammals:...32...-1
  Totals:...59...-1

Monkey Sanctuary
Looe, Cornwall PL13 1NZ Telephone: 44-1-50-36-2532 Fax: 
  Mammals:...1...2
 

Natureland Seal Sanctuary
North Parade
Skegness, Lincs. Telephone: 44-1-754-764345 Fax: 
  Mammals:...18...131
New Forest Butterfly Farm

Norfolk Wildlife Centre and Country Park
Great Witchingham
Norwich, Norfolk NR9 5QS Telephone: 44-1-603-872-274 Fax: 
  Mammals:...40...282

Owl Centre
Muncaster Castle
Ravenglass, Cumbria CA18 1RQ Telephone: 44-1-229-717393 Fax: 44-1-229-717107
  Mammals:...48...192

Paignton Zoo
Totnes Road
Paignton, Devon TQ4 7EU Telephone: 44-1-803-557479 Fax: 44-1-803-523457
  Mammals:...146...675

Palacerigg Country Park
Cumbernauld
Scotland G67 3HU Telephone: 41-1-236-720-047 Fax: 

Paradise Wildlife Park
Glanmor House
Hayle, Cornwall TR27 4RY Telephone: 44-1-736-753-365 Fax: 44-1-736-756438
  Mammals:...145...514

Penscynor Wildlife Park
Cilfrew
Neath
Glam., SA10 8LF, S Wales Telephone: 44-1-639-642189 Fax: 44-1-639-635152
  Mammals:...87...317

Port Lympne Wildlife Park
Lympne
Hythe, Kent Telephone: 44-1-303-264-647 Fax: 44-1-303-264-944
Identified in 15 Mar 1990 Nature as where a BSE eland died

Ravensden zoo
Northants, UK
Source of 3 rhesus monkeys that later died of TSE in Montpellier, France

Riber Castle Wildlife Park
Riber Castle
Matlock, Derbyshire DE4 5JU Telephone: 44-1-629-582073 Fax: 
  Mammals:...24...160

Ridgeway Trust for Endangered Cats
7 Parkwood Road
Hastings, East Sussex TN34 2RN Telephone: 44-1-424-752145 Fax:                            

Robin Hill Country Parks Ltd.
Combley Farm
Downend
Newport, Isle of Wight Telephone: 44-1-983-527352 Fax: 

Royal Zoological Society of Scotland
Scottish National Zoological Park
Murrayfield
Edinburgh, Scotland 
  Mammals:...53...482

Shaldon Wildlife Trust Ltd.
Ness Drive
Shaldon, nr. Teignmouth
South Devon TQ14 0HP Telephone: 44-1-626-872234 Fax: 44-1-626-872234
  Mammals:...5...10

Smestow Water Mill & Wildlife Centre
Heath Mill Road
Wombourne, W Midlands WV5 8AP Telephone: 44-1-902-898-213 Fax: 
South Lakes Wild Animal Park

Crossgates
Dalton-in-Furness
Cumbria LA15 8JR Telephone: 44-1229-466086 Fax: 44-1229-466086

Southport Zoo and Conservation Centre
Princes Park
Southport
Merseyside PR8 1RX Telephone: 44-1704-538102 Fax: 44-1704-548529
  Mammals:...60...193

Stagsden Bird Gardens
Stagsden
Bedford MK43 8SL Telephone: 44-1-234-822745 Fax: 
  Mammals:...149...644

Stratford Upon Avon Butterfly Farm and
Jungle Safari
The Tramway, Swans Nest Lane
Stratford Upon Avon CV37 7LS Telephone: 44-1-789-299288 Fax: 44-1-789-415878
  Mammals:...5...20

Suffolk Wildlife Park
Whites Lane
Kessingland, nr Lowestoft
Suffolk NR33 7TF Telephone: 44-1-502-740291 Fax: 44-1-502-741104
  Mammals:...17...35

Thrigby Hall Wildlife Gardens
Thrigby Hall, Filby
Great Yarmouth
Norfolk NR29 3DS Telephone: 44-1-493-369-477 Fax: 44-1-493-368-256
  Mammals:...39...108

Tropical Bird Gardens
Rode, Bath BA3 6QW Telephone: 44-1-373-830326 Fax: 
  Mammals:...230...1200

Tropical World
Canal Gardens
Roundhay Park
Leeds LS8 1DF Telephone: 44-1132-661850 Fax: 44-1132-370077

Twycross Zoo
East Midlands Zoological Society Ltd
Twycross, Atherstone
Warwicks. CV9 3PX Telephone: 44-1-827-880250 Fax: 44-1-827-880700
  Mammals:...70...222

University Marine Biological Station
Millport
Isle of Cumbrae KA28 0EG Telephone: 44-1-475-530581 Fax: 44-1-475-530601

Welsh Mountain Zoo (Zoological Society of
Wales)
Colwyn Bay
Clwyd. LL28 5UY, Wales Telephone: 44-1-492-532938 Fax: 44-1-492-530498
  Mammals:...30...94

West Midland Safari Park
Spring Grove
Bewdley, Worcs. DY12 1LF Telephone: 44-1-299-402-114 Fax: 44-1-299-404-519
  Mammals:...4...20

Whipsnade Wildlife Park
Whipsnade
Dunstable, Beds. LU6 2LF Telephone: 44-1-582-872171 Fax: 44-1-582-872649
   Mammals:...74...749
Exported cheetah to  Safari de Peaugres, France, diagnosed in January 1997, born at Whipsnade zoo in 1989

Wildfowl & Wetlands Centre
Mill Road
Arundel, W Sussex BN18 9PB Telephone: 44-1-903-883-355 Fax: 
  Mammals:...70...754

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
District 15
Washington
Tyne & Wear NE38 8LE Telephone: 44-1-91-4165454 Fax: 44-1-91-416-5801
  Mammals:...96...1172

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Castle Espie
Ballydrain Road
Comber, Co. Down BT23 6AE Telephone: 44-1247-874146 Fax: 44-1247-873857

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Canolfan Llanelli Centre, Penclacwydd
Llwynhendy, Llanelli
Dyfed SA14 9SH, Wales Telephone: 44-1-554-741087 Fax: 
  Mammals:...97...1132

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Martin Mere
Burscough, nr Ormskirk
Lancs. L40 OTA Telephone: 44-1-704-895181 Fax: 44-1-704-892343
  Mammals:...102...1000

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust National Centre
Slimbridge
Gloucester GL2 7BT Telephone: 44-1-453-890-333 Fax: 44-1-453-890-827
  Mammals:...113...3078

Woburn Abbey Deer Park
Woburn
Milton Keynes
Beds. MK17 9PQ Telephone: 44-1-525-290666 Fax: 44-1-525-290271
  Mammals:...0...0

Woburn Safari Park
Woburn Park, Beds. MK17 9QN Telephone: 44-1-525-290407 Fax: 
  Mammals:...5...31

Yorkshire Dales Falconry and Conservation
Centre
Crows Nest, Near Giggleswick, Settle
North Yorkshire LA2 8AS Telephone: 44-1-729-822-832 Fax: 44-1-729-825-160

Which zoos hold which primates and how many?

This can be determined more or less from the World Zoo Organization on a species-by-species basis.

For example, the BSE-affected species, Lemur catta, is found at 196 facilites holding a total of 565 females, 519 males, 1489 not specified and 154 recent births. The 54 genera of primate may be searched for the zoos that hold them; from that database, the total holdings of particular zoos can be reconstructed:

53 Primate Genera Held by Zoos
(open links as new pages)
Allenopithecus
Alouatta
Aotus
Ateles
Cacajao
Callicebus
Callimico
Callithrix
Cebus
Cercocebus
Cercopithecus
Cheirogaleus
Chiropotes
Chlorocebus
Colobus
Daubentonia
Erythrocebus
Eulemur
Galago
Galagoides
Gorilla
Hapalemur
Homo
Hylobates
Indri    0
Lagothrix
Lemur
Leontopithecus
Lepilemur  0
Lophocebus
Loris
Macaca
Mandrillus
Microcebus
Miopithecus
Mirza 0
Nasalis
Otolemur
Pan
Papio
Perodicticus
Pithecia
Pongo
Presbytis
Propithecus
Pygathrix
Saguinus
Saimiri
Tarsius
Theropithecus>
Trachypithecus
Varecia

Lemur catta

Stcather
Cheste
Duke Pri
Fot
Thoir
Mosco
Peaugre
Brownsvi
Odens
Edinburg
Lansin
Hamilto
Tananari
Blackpoo
Banha
Dubli
Hilvaren
Antwer
La Palmy
So Lake
Barcelon
Munste
Singapor
Wild Wrl
Aucklan
La Plain
Lisbo
Char
Detroi
Fontain
Indianap
Kobenhav
Omah
Rockto
S Barbar
Cape Ma
Gulf Bre
Monro
Romagn
Saarbruc
Toront
Franklin
Jerusale
Karlsruh
Lafay In
Memphi
Mulhous
Phoeni
Pozna
Syracus
Winsto
Amersfoo
Battle C
Budapes
Clevelan
Ft Wayn
Issaqua
Kol
Madiso
Metrozo
Obterr
Prah
Sd-wa
Southben
Alfristo
Apeldoor
Beauva
Belfas
Birmingh
Bois
Bronx C
Busch Ta
Cheha
Coal Va
Ferndal
Hambur
Honolul
Magdebur
Marwel
Riyad
Silver S
Southwic
Touropar
Whipsnad
Amsterda
Bermud
Besanco
Brevar
Bridgeto
Burfor
Bussolen
Caldwel
Dudle
Grandisl
Jerse
Kansasct
Lava
Ny Bron
Ramat Ga
Rig
Rostoc
San Fra
Smoky M
St Pau
Staten I
Taipe
Adelaid
Bowmanvi
Bristo
Colchest
Edmon
Ep
Frankfur
Greenvis
Hogl
Lakebuen
Leo
Littlero
Nashvill
Pert
Philadel
Pittsbur
Portlan
Rhene
Sacramnt
Salzbur
Scovill 
Ust
Zuric
Calgar
Colo Spr
Dalla
Denve
Dickerso
Disney A
Dubb
Ebeltof
Fresn
Hannove
Housto
Lod
Losangel
Louisvil
Lowr
Miami P
Milwauke
Nikolae
Oklahom
Oran
Pret Po
Pretori
Safari 
Sanjoseb
Santa An
Schweri
St Loui
Tautphau
Vienn
Yokoham
Alamed
Alexandr
Berlinzo
Broussar
Buffal
Dreher P
Empori
Evansvll
Hattiesb
Hong Kon
Ivoloin
Johansbr
Kraaifon
Lisieux 
Madrid 
Melbourn
Paris Zo
Ploc
Rolling 
San Anto
Springfi
St Peter
Trevo
W Palm B
Warsa
Winnipe
Des Moin
Dulut
Eurek
Lille Z
Long Bra
Puebl
Quebe
Seattl
Sedgwic
Talli
54
45
40
30
30
27
27
26
25
24
23
22
20
18
16
16
16
15
15
15
14
14
14
13
12
12
12
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
10
10
10
10
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Eulemur fulvus

Erlinzoo
Ivoloina
Perth
Wuppertal
Olomouc
Romagne
Saarbruck
La Plaine
Peaugres
St Peters
Chester
Paris Zoo
Duke Prim
Tallin
Cincinnat
Hilvarenb
Moscow
Mulhouse
Neuwied
San Fran
Bussoleng
Epe
Lisbon
Lodz
So Lakes
Tananariv
Thoiry
Besancon
Jackson
Monroe
Totals

37
12
12
10
9
9
9
8
7
7
6
6
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
175
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